PALEOLITHIC ART MAGAZINE

LIGURIA



THE RUNNING OF THE TIME IN THE MENTAL AND MATERIAL REPRESENTATION OF THE PALEOLITHIC MAN


Licia Filingeri



1) The observation of running of the time
2) The mind concept
3) The mind of the paleolithic man
4) The concept of mental representation
5) The skill of mental representation of the paleolithic man
6) The skill of symbolizing and the paleolithic man
7) The representation of the time in the Paleolithic
8) Conclusion

1) The observation of running of the time

"at vigiles mundi magnum versatile templum
sol et luna suo lustrantes lumine circum
perdocuere homines annorum tempora verti
et certa ratione geri rem atque ordine certo"

(
Titus Lucretius Caro, De rerum natura, V, 1436-1439)

There is no doubt that the man, observing the constant rebirth of the things, has also immediately perceived the existence of a maturative climax beyond which the decline begins : therefore, running of the time, not controlable occurrence.
With the apparition of the writing, we find many myths, sure stratified on ancient oral traditions, that speak about it. More famous it is perhaps that one of Kronos, the feracious Titan, son of Gea and Uranus, who mutilated and drove away from the throne his father, and that in his turn, becomed father, fearing the same fate through the hands of a son, begun to devorate the sons conceived with Rhea ( mythology narrates that Zeus, escaped with a deceit to the fate, was revenged then of him, imprisoning him in the Tartar, becoming therefore in his turn king of the Gods).

Discovering to the nexus between change and time, and at the same time reflecting on the fact that, for the same vicissitudes of the existence, running was full of important events for him, the man, with defining the temporality like meaningful and definable, with distinguishing in the thought and the memory between past, present and future, has in some sense made the time something of his belongings.
Beginning from the movement of the sun and the stars, and then of these careful observations on unfolding of the life around himself, he has begun to think the time.
Therefore, although time and movement do not coincide in how much, in order to determine the speed, we must already know the time, however the "number of the movement according to before and after" (Aristotle, Physica, VIII) has given to the man, in the observation of such implicit movement, the occasion of a disclosure of the time as evenience of events in which it can be observed before and after, it is matter of an objective measurable time or a lived time.

So ,we are already in the field of the mental.

Therefore, the subjective-objective observation of the natural rhythms [ growth, development, death] on himself [ meant as psychophysic being], and about own similar ones, in the animal and vegetable kingdom; the observation of the rythmic alternate of light and dark, of seasonal climatic variations also with regard to the fruits and to the fauna; and, raising the eyes to the sky, at first astonished and curious, and then carefully investigator, the observation of successive lunar phases, of rising and sunset and the periodical disappear and reappear of the constellations, a motion therefore of circular cyclical shape always equal to itself, all that has ingendered in the man the conscience of the time and of its pass.
It, both an idea, like supported by Plato, therefore preexisting to the same man thinking it (a kind of last truth, preexisting and existing independently from the thinker who will think it, in order to use an image taken again by the psychoanalyst Wilfred Bion), or features of a creation of the mind of the man, of his "discursive reasoning", the Psyché, having high rate of variety, like a follower of him, Plotinus, supports in the Enneades ("the soul produces its actions one after the other, in a always different succession: with a new action, it generates what comes after... therefore the life of the soul, dissociating itself, occupies time ", Enneades, III, 7, paragraph 11), when asserts that the soul is principle of life and origin of the several things of the world, so that the time rises with it.
With the reflection and the knowledge, it is presumable the introduction of the need "to stop" the observations regarding this running, as vital information always available, finalized to the reproduction (rhythms of the reproductive cycle, menstruations, pregnancy) and to the other aspects of the survival (previsionality of climatic changing of the seasons in relation to the necessity to make use of homes of different type; to the crop of the food as seasonal and local availability, and moreover possibility to set up a seasonal and diversified hunting of the kills, of air, earth and water).

Heidegger, theorizing about the time, emphasizes that the man reflects about the fact that the time is always time in order to make something, is "time for...", that is thought with departure from the human acting, not abstract idea, in how much the human existence is "time in order to make something". The moment of own death, then, placing a end to the own time, fixes the coordinates of the future and of the same to be over of the time in itself.

Therefore, necessity to establish by means of precise references, exactly placed in the running of the time, the more apt moments for the generation, the migration, the hunting, the collecting and the seeding, that is to have a calendar and compute, making such references in every moment available to himself and the others.
Good sense and reason suggest to us that consequently the man has felt the necessity to make stable and available such observations ; therefore a great step from the subjective to the shareble in how much measurable.

Preliminarily, it must have been matter of observations on a biological time, flow scanded from present, past and future, nearly immediately transformed, in a process of abstraction, in observations on the cycle of the human life, supported by a sense of identity, sign of a conscience that makes temporal, permeated as it is from an intuition of the trascendence in the being, made also of regretted of the past and anxieties for the future, primeval origin of a some concept of "time of the man", that it is pertaining to the mental.
We know that every concept is fruit of an abstraction process, and subsequently of a categorization operation on the base of relations or characteristics in common.

It is much probable that immediately has grafted a functionality connected to the actualization of cult rituals, they also sequences of actions with precise scansion, presumabily tied electively to the lunar rhythms (that establish the rhythm of the cyclical duration of the 28 days of the lunar month) and solar (annual rhythms with cyclical following of the seasons); all, leaving, as it has been said, from problems relative to secure and to arrange essential alimentary resources for the survival and the continuity of the life, under the urgency of the happening, and therefore of being incumbent, of the death.

So, in the seeing as temporal the own and the other people's life, also the concept of number bursts into mind of the man like an extraordinary lightning; as already stated by Plato: "... the observations of the day and the night, the months and the periods of the years, the equinoxes and the solstices have procured the number, and have supplied the reflection on the time and the search on the nature of the universe" (Timeus, 47a).
We are in front of a conceptualization of enormous meaning: an immense field of observations and creativity open for the man.
A single example: from the discovery of the number to that of music, from always to it tied closely, in how much science thought and structured according to the laws of the number (see St.Augustin, De Musica and Confessiones, 11, and, after him, Ancius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boetius, Consolatio, V), the step is short (think to the Timeus of Plato, 35b passim; moreover look at Aristotle, Physica, IV c 10-14 and then still, of the Christian period, Seneca , Epistolae morales, n. 88, 33; De brevitate vitae; and Sextus Empiricus, 19 Pyrrhoneioi hypotyposeis III, 136- 150; Adversus mathematicos X 3, 169-247, in which the universe is placed to the inside of a musical outline).

The reason says to us therefore that the observation and the conceptualization of the time have probably smoothed the road towards all the other types of observations and conceptualizations, beyond opening the master way towards the transcendence, in how much the man takes conscience of this dimension, and in primis of the divine through the reflection on the numerical relationships, beginning from the spread of the time, in which is expressed the twofold tension, that just produces movement: from the First Motor towards his creation, and of all the objects of the universe towards him.


2) The mind concept

We are necessarily arrived to the mind concept, and consequently we will have to be taken care of the symbol.
Ernest Jones asserts that "a concrete idea is symbolized when is represented from an other concrete idea that usually has a double relationship with it: 1) an objective relationship, in how much the object or the process possesses material attributes similar to those possessed from the symbolized idea; 2) a subjective relationship in how much the mental attitude in its confronts, is, under some aspects, similar to that one in reference to the primary idea "(Jones, p 133 Theory of the symbolism).

It will be at this point functional to our search to premise a allusion on the fundamental distinction between brain and mind, that, with departure from a philosophical reflection going back to Plato, has occupied in the last end of century the debate within the Neurosciences , that, with alternate vicissitudes, long time have been interrogating themselves on the possible derivation of the mental functions from those cerebral ones.
The philosophical and epistemologyc debate on the purpose has been and is a lot vivacious, and is passed and passes through multiple positions.

It goes preliminarily explained that, with regard to the issue of the mind, the discipline of fully reference is the Psychology; and that, between the Psychologies, particularly the Psychoanalysis deals about it, with departure from S.Freud.

It would be established right now the absolute differentiation between brain (whose study, made in great part of measurements, is appanage of the Neurosciences), and mind, understood like function that cannot be measured, and that comes structuring itself in the course and through the relational processes.

It also goes emphasized that in many sciences relating to the study of our origins, beginning from the Paleoanthropology, the cerebral functions are by someone not correctly seen and used like only valid reference for a total acquaintance of the man leaving from the origins, so that by the most there is the inclination to think that the problem is circumscribed to that one of the skeletal rests, privileging the concept of biological evolution, to the detriment of that cultural one, that instead attends to the evolution of the mind.

What I mean to say is that the certain, important enrichments with regard to the acknowledgement of the physical evolution of the man, just limited to a part of the total speech referred to Homo, therefore in compliance with the methodological principle of the current epistemology, badly interpreted and more worse used by many scholars of the Prehistory, have placed a serious restraint to the investigation on the unavoidable problem of the relationships between organic and mental evenements; beyond all, they have considered them as futur to come in an hypothetical (but taken for good) scale of the human evolution, consequently not inquiring them in the man of the Paleolithic, indeed, not even daring to postulate them, for fear perhaps of being accused of too much fantasy and little scientificity.

In such a way, science does not progress: instead of the curiosity and the deductions suggested from good sense and reason regarding the existing "trace-documents" (obviously, does not refer to written documents in the periods before the writing), that only are in a position to give us a picture of the situation at the age, impediments and prejudicial ideas stand out about how much from a point of view of the physical evolution could be or not to be, losing therefore the occasion to discover new things (nearly always unexpected or "incredible").
It would be then hoped that all the disciplines worked flank to flank, integrating themselves, without to stop to a merely biological and evolutionnistic vision of the man in restrictive and bad sense.

Others have suggested alternative and more fruitfully runnables ways, like the psychiatrist Henry Ey, who has indicated a way towards an anthropological and relational neurobiology, that do not deny the importance of the physical evolution of the brain, but considers the man in the only possible way, not only like a body with physical potentialities, but in its bio-psycho-social essence.


3) The mind of the paleolithic man

Therefore we have now the exigence to ask to usselfs if the man of 2,500,000 years ago possessed or less a mind.
Wanting to limit us to considerations of anthropological character, we remark that Homo Habilis introduces, in comparison with the shapes that has preceded him, a remarkable increase of cranial capability, and therefore some cortical areas that preside to the language, and of those associative ones tied to the symbolic functions (see Eccles, p 103 ss), therefore are hypothizables both conscience and auto-conscience.
However, the testimonies left to us by Homo, mainly intentionally worked in stone tools with a plan and a technical work very specify to the aim, both useful and not, and that is the art, are alive and inconfutable testimony of the mind, of its mental representations (the art), and of their evolution.

Daniel C.Dennet, philosopher (as preferably loves to define himself) and scientist, Director of the Center for Cognitive Studies at Tufts University, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), assimilates the mind to an elaborator program, in which learning and memory act as bases of the re-programming of the brain aimed to being able to face as better as possible new problems: " The task of a mind is to produce future... A mind is, reduced to the essential, an system able of anticipation...: it digs in the present searching indications, that then perfects with the aid of the materials preserved from the past, transforming them in anticipations of the future. And then it acts, rationally on the base of these anticipations "(Dennet, p 69).
It is a tactical fundamental from the point of view of the evolution, that privileges the creations whose project has a phenotipic plasticity, in how much does not exist a complete plan from birth, but wide possibility to correct some elements of the plan as a result of eveniences occurring in the moment of the practical verification.
In particular, Dennet observes how this process is begun just from the Hominids, having emphasized the ascertainment, by the anthropologists, of an increase of intelligence correlated to the ideation and the use of tools.
Dennet observes that "not only the acknowledgment and the conservation of a tool (and still more its fabrication) demand intelligence; a tool is also in a position to conferring intelligence to who is enough lucky to possess it" (ivi, p 115). Finally the modifications, carried from language and images, at their turn transfer themselves on the genome. Therefore, that makes of something a mind, is what it can make. Ergo, the men of the Paleolithic, the makers of the first tools, and the first art, the first men appeared on the scene of the world, had a mind.
Therefore, we can postulate the existence of the mind in Homo since the origins.

Recently, it has been widely spoken about "resonance of the minds" in the course of the social relations, and about its transformative power, practiced in the arc of the times. " Connections between minds […] involve a dyadic form of resonance in which energy and information are free to flow across two brains. When such a process is in full activation, the vital feeling of connection is exhilarating. When interpersonal communication is 'fully engaged' - when the joining of minds is in full force - there is an overwhelming sense of immediacy, clarity, and authenticity. It is in these heightened moments of engagement, these dyadic states of resonance, that one can appreciate the power of relationships to nurture and to heal the mind." (Siegel, p. 337)

It will be then useful to consider like the evolution of the language plays an important role in the evolution of the mind of the man, but also in this case, it will not be useful neither diriment to reduce the problem to a speech of development of the larinx and the phonation organs, beyond that of the cerebral areas deputed to the language or to it correlated, but we will have clearly to agree on what we consider "language", that, in agreement with Eccles, we will consider as a particular semiotic system.
They will be therefore to estimate the relationships between language and thought, with the transformations of symbolic and representational type of signs created and used that lead to the language.


4) The concept of mental representation

The word representation model "places the languages in the meaning... [of ] semiotic systems, conventional or natural, that the man uses in order to settle/determinate aspects or parts of truth, and that come used by the men in order to exchange reciprocally data regarding the reality in itself" (Vimercati, p 13).
The freudian model, with the speech about the drivers, like stimuli inside to the organism, that have allowed the development of the nervous system in the man, has contributed to an extraordinarily interesting observation on the anthropological plan, "in how much displaces the evolutionary apex of the man from the organic functions beloved by the Paleoanthropology (acquisition of the erected position, transformation of the use of the hand, of the mouth etc.) (Leroi-Gourhan, 1964-65) to those psychical, dominated from desire. An evolutionary passage from the nature to the culture "(Mancia, p 15).
Mental representation is a word that corresponds to image (from the Latin imago, ghost, appearance), mental reproduction of an already happened perception, not present to our senses, it is question of an external, inner or fantastic object; it also designates the content of the representation. In any case, it allows to live again the perceptive experience, also in absence of the object that constitutes the sensory stimulus of it .
Freud in his Metapsychology distinguishes between representation of thing and representation of word. That one of thing (much near the mnestic traces) is visual, deriving from the sight just of "things", while that one of word is acoustic, originating from the perception of sounds.
Freud operates such distinction in order to clear as the representations of thing are tied to the unconscious, while those of word are tied to the preconscius-conscious system.
However, the representation of thing is more than a mnestic trace, in how much is not a pure transcription of the event, but it presupposes a re-invesment of it.
Of the other hand, the representation of word is more complex, in how much the mnestic image, being associated to the verbalization, enters in the area of the conscience.
Notice that the conscious representation is constituted both from the representation of thing and of word that corresponds to them, therefore more is articulated of the representation of unconscious thing.


5) The skill of mental representation of the paleolithic man

We can at this point to ask to us which it could be the skill of mental representation of the paleolithic man.
Lacking of written documents, an answer to such question could be deducted from the observation of the material productions.
In order to realize the first tools, it is certain that our more far away ancestor has left from an idea, a mental plan, fruit probably of associations and ulterior elaborations of observations in nature.
Such representation obviously had also a content, probably, making an example, the shape-plan incarnating the idea of a tool, of which today we possess thousand of exemplars, universally noticed (all the people of medium schoolarization are in a position to recognizing a paleolithic tool in stone).

Omitting the progresses deriving from the evolution of the technique, we do not see therefore a great difference between the ability for mental representation of the Man of the paleolithic and the our of Homo technologicus of III millennium.



6) The skill of symbolization and the paleolithic man

We already know that in the man of 2,500,000 years ago they were present associative areas, that is some cerebral regions tied to the symbolic functions.
The symbol, that re-enters in the order of the sign, is a specific sign that comes to replace a real action.
We know that, in order to approach the symbolization, it is not necessary the skill of language, as from long time have demonstrated laboratory searches on the chimpanzees.
A study by Joel Fagot (Center searches of Neurosciences of Marseilles, France), and Edward Wasserman and Michael E. Young (University of Iowa, U.S.A.), ("Journal of Experimental Psychology"), October 2001, regarding of the baboons ( they also pertaining to the family of the primates, just to a branch that has been divided from the men and the monkeys approximately thirty millions years ago), has ulteriorly shown that the skill of language in order to understand the relations between the things and to identify them or to describe them is not necessary .
The baboons of the experiment have demonstrated to possess gleams of abstract intelligence, being able to select some images on the screen of a computer, following an analogic reasoning of the type: "this corresponds to this".
If this is valid for our next cousinses, why it would not have to be for us?
Moreover, for the the man, much more at the beginning of the social life, the ability to symbolizing has been functional to the same social organization, beyond that to a good punctualization of survival strategies.
Presumablly, to the beginnings, the numerical sequences (quantitative) after to have been expressed in some way to oral level (with similar sounds in sequence and, probably, before the creation of vocal sounds more organized and in a more structured verbal language), came represented concretely (albo signando lapillo, as used to say the Romans), with natural objects, that they could be little pieces of wood, or little pebbles, or whichever other object available in amount in nature, durable in the time, not encumbering, eventually easy transportable, visually very clear; in one word, symbols.

Later on, we can assume that, for greater practicalness of use (economy of space, easy transportability and trasmittibility, universality of understanding and apprehension), such sequences have been recorded through some thing could represent them, presumablly dots or vertical heels engraved on rigid material, like the stone, first, the more durable and consisting material available in nature.

The resort to the symbol could also re-enter in a problem of communication, process made possible from a language, just the symbol, or the same sign broadly speaking, in how much relation between meaning and meant .
Like such, it puts into effect a passage from the mental representation to that material (the symbol used like concrete object), therefore made common, socially shared and immediately comprehensible (that re-enters in the within of the mental firstly, and then eventually of the cultural), if it is instrumental to the recording of the time. In this case, the purpose becomes informative, therefore closely aimed to the knowledge (cognitive), indissolubly tied, as it has been said, to a urgent and primary problem of survival.
Such probably the first motivation to the computational need and above all of its recording and publish sharing.


7) The representation of the time in the paleolithic

Evidences of the perception and of the compute of the time in the Paleolithic are come until us in concrete shape, under shape of sculpture in stone, lunar calendars on bone and stellar maps, engraved on rigid material like the stone or the bone or painted to the inside of the caves. The first to having the intuition of the existence, in the upper Paleolithic, of calendars has been Alexander Marschack, than in the years 60, as journalist charged by the NASA to write a book on the history of the Science, has placed to himself the problem of which could be the element detector of rising of the scientific component in the history of the thought of the man.
After having known the bone recorded of Ishango, and passionated to the archaeological search, after attentive and accurate studies, he has characterized and indicated as hinge element of the history of the development of science by the man the calendar, tool that is evolued gradually and slowly through the times, like testified from very known predynastic almanacs of the aegyptian civilization, until those mesopotamic, indians, chinese and of the southern America.
His first surveying in this sense has concerned a handle of bone of 9,6 cm. of length, coming from Ishango, near the Rodolfo Lake, upper Nylus, equatorial Africa, dated to 20,000 years (it is part of the collections of Museum des Sciences naturelles of Brussels, Belgium). uncovered in the 1950 by the Belgian archaeologist Jean De Heinzel.
The bone, lightly bent, is craved cross-sectionally and vertically on three sides, with 168 heels organized on five columns in groups and subgroups of signs.

Jean de Heinzelin in 1962 had supplied a first inerpretation of it, characterizing in the first column the prime numbers between 10 and 20, in the second the multiplication concept, in the third a kind of mathematical game on the base of addition and subtraction.
In any case, this object, richest of inner combinations, has still today not been at all comprised.
Marshack, in his turn, postulating the interest of the man of the Paleolithic for the activities of the daily life tied to running of the time, has considered it a calendar, in particular a lunar calendar.
After having studied this first object tied to the compute of the time, he has looked for some others. Near the Musée des Antiquités Nationales de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris, France, he has completed observations on a series of objects dated from the Aurignacian (30,000 B.C.), until the Magdalenian, in particular dwelling upon a bone coming from the abri Blanchard, Castelmerle, Sergeac, Dordogne, lenght 9,7 cm., found by Louis Didon in 1911, recorded on a surface of 5,2 cm., with 69 heels of shape and sequence similar to that of the different lunar phases.
His interpretation has been that of a lunar calendar that covers a period of 2 months and 1/4; having then found other heels there (63, and 40 on the other side), therefore in total 172 signs, he has deducted that it is matter of the representation of 6 lunar months. Marshack supports that the conting came made more times, in how much is found, observing them to the microscope, than the heels were recorded in different periods with 24 tools of different type.
Later on, he has studied other lunar calendars, like the bone recorded of abri Lartet, Dordogne, aurignacian of 30,000 years ago, with circular recordings that he thinks similar to the aspect of the moon in its several phases during one month; also in this case, according to Marshack, the counting was repeated more times; the pebble of Barma Great (Italy, Perigordian, dated 24,000 years), and a stick of command of the Cave Placard (Charente, Magdalenian of 12,000 years ago).
Other studies are followed, like those relative to Kulna, Czechoslovakia, that introduces 46 heels in groups of three (15, 16 and 15), again connected to the lunar phases (half of the lunar month); that one of Gontzi, Ukraina, with 114 heels on a continuous line shaped as U, grouped in four groups (it could be a notation relative to four lunations); that one of Cueto de la Mina, extended from March to October, perhaps in relation with observations on the periods of gestation.

Always pertaining to the upper Paleolithic, it does not go forgotten the recording on stone about the Venus of Laussel handling a horn or recorded bone, that could be one of the first testimonies of recordings of the lunar phases (see Filingeri, The most ancient known representation of the moon (Upper Paleolithic, Vara, Savona, Liguria, Italy), Paleolithic Art Magazine)

Recently, Michael Rappenglueck (Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Munchen of Bayer, Germany), according to most numerous texts of different type, in the great scene of Lascaux, m.2,75, with animals and the so-called "man with face as spout", has characterized a representation in which he seen the shaman, that faces the spirit of the bison, in relation with some constellations that, in the summer of the 16,500 B.C., passed on the meridian at the midnight of the solstice of summer (stars of the summer Triangle, Deneb (Cygni alpha), Vega (Lyra alpha), Ercole (Her), Head of the Snake, Ofiucus and Virgin (Vir) and Altair (aigle alpha), in the fresco of Lascaux represented from the eyes of the killed man, of the bison and of the bird on the stick. Moreover, the rhinoceros would be composed from the constellations Pegasus (Peg), Andromeda (And), Triangle (Tri), Aries (Ari), and the horse from the constellation of the Lion (Leo).
Rappenglueck supports, leaning himself to evidences coming from several ancient and modern disciplines, that the fresco of Lascaux is detector of knowledges of an ancient cosmology, cosmogony, biology, psychology and religion, that would demonstrate an elevated ideological and integrating force of the paleolithic man.

Ulterior testimonies of the interest for the running of the time and the accuracy of the astronomical observations come us from the numerous megalithic astronomical observatories that are arrived more or less intact until us, to begin from the great, important complex of Stonehenge, that, with the improvement of the studies and the computational tools at disposition, more and more is being revealed a perfect and extremely complex astronomical observatory, like has demonstred the astronomer Gerald S. Hawkins (Nature, 1963, and subsequently in his book Stonehenge Decoded, 1965, New York, Doubleday).

In times still remoter, a trace of the interest of the man for the moon, the star that more than every other is lend, with the alternation of its clearly perceptibles phases (both at direct visual level, and under shape of immediately verifiable influences, and essential for the survival same of the genus man), to show cyclical running of the time and the duration, comes to us from the Paleolithic, with a superb sculpture in stone,

Anthropomorphic sculpture. Profile view.
Vara, San Pietro d'Olba, Savona Italia

that, with its arch shape, typologically much different from others to our acquaintance, seems to represent just a moon scythe (see The most ancient representation known of the moon, cit.). Hat and hair are divided from a recording . Other lines are appreciable on what its discoverer, Pietro Gaietto, interprets like a pointed hood, for which could also be assumed a calendar made with heels. The face, portrayed of profile, in that will be then the classic anthropomorhic representation of a moon scythe, could belong to a woman, in compliance with the association moon-woman who gets lost in the night of the times. It could therefore be dealt of the most ancient known representation of the moon.


Anthropomorphic sculpture. 3/4 view.
Vara, San Pietro d'Olba, Savona Italia

The sculpture has been thus described by Gaietto: " Anthropomorhic sculpture (height cm. 46, Vara, San Pietro d' Olba, Savona, Italy). It represents a head of Homo sapiens sapiens. It has a stylistic deformation that emphasizes the re-entering face; and a similar representation is in an anthropomorhic menhir of Carnac (present in this website). Being whitout beard, it could also be a feminine head . For the elevation of the head, it seems having a hat."


8) Conclusion

Therefore, evidences in the artistic field, going back to the lower Paleolithic and gradually ahead in the time, both in the first shape of art, the sculpture, and in the recording and in the painting, show the immediate perception by Homo of running of the time, and his worry to measure it, to fix it in the observation in stable shape, to use to the same purposes of the own survival.

I would want to conclude reminding some lines of Lucretius, that from more than 2,000 years helps to think us: "Primum animum dico, mentem quem saepe vocamus,
in quo consilium vitae regimenque locatum est,
esse hominis partem nilo minus ac manus, et pes,
atque oculi partes animantis totius extant."

(Lucretius, De rerum naturae, III, vv.94-97).



BIBLIOGRAPHY

DENNET,D.C., (1996), La mente e le menti, Milano, Rizzoli, 1996

ECCLES, J.C., ( 1979), Il mistero uomo, Milano, Il saggiatore, 1981

GAIETTO, P: (1981). Prescultura e scultura preistorica, Genova, E.R.G.A.

JONES, E., (1938), Teoria del simbolismo, Roma, Astrolabio, 1972

MANCIA, M., (1994), Dall'Edipo al sogno. Modelli della mente nello sviluppo e nel transfert, Milano, Cortina

LUCRETIUS, De rerum natura

MARSHACK, A. (1970), "The roots of civilization", New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company

PLATO, Timeus

PLOTINUS, Enneades

SIEGEL, D.J. (1999), The Developing Mind: Toward a Neurobiology of Interpersonal Experience, N.Y, Guilford Press

VIMERCATI, M., (2000), La sintesi prossima, Genova, Le Mani



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