PALEOLITHIC ART MAGAZINE

LIGURIA



AFFINITIES BETWEEN THE PALEOLITHIC VENUS WITH TWO HEADS OF THE BALZI ROSSI (LIGURIA) AND THE NEOLITHIC VENUS WITH TWO HEADS OF CAMPO CERESOLE (LOMBARDIA, ITALY, EUROPE).

Pietro Gaietto


To the current state of (my) knowledge, the prehistoric feminine statuines (venus) with two heads have been found only in Europe and America.
The European two-headed Venus have been found in Italy and are only two. The first is paleolithic, and has been found at the end of the nineteenth century at the Balzi Rossi (Liguria); the second one is neolithic, and has been found in 1976 at Campo Ceresole (Lombardia). The two localities are relatively near, in how much they are distant approximately 200 km.
The bicephalous American Venus come from Tatlilco (Mexico); they are numerous, and they have been dated between 1100 and 500 B.C.


FIG. 1 BICEPHALOUS ANTHROPOMORHIC SCULPTURE IN TERRACOTTA

Representation of a nude woman (venus) with two heads.
Size: height. cm. 14.
Origin: Campo Ceresole near Vho di Piadena (Lombardia, Italy). Diggings 1976. Artistic-religious thieullenian post-paleolithic Civilization (for the nude body) and harroyan (for the two-heads).
Material culture: Neolithic.
Dating: end V millenium B. C.
Collocation: Archaeological Soprintendenza of the Lombardia, Museo Comunale Archeologico Antiquarium Platina di Piadena.
This sculpture has been found in several fragments, without a leg, and has been restored.
It represents a woman with two heads, and represents a divinity.
The shape of the heads reproduces the shape of the hair, enriched by ornamental patterns , traced with little lines as "V" present also in the dorsal side. Not represented the elements of the face; the sharp breast and the globose buttocks jut out from the rectilinear body of the figure.
The statuine in terracotta was covered from a thin ingobbio, of black color, of which are found traces in the lower part of the body and on the left head.


About the bicephalous venus of the Balzi Rossi, and the bicephalous venus of Tlatilco see : Museum of the Origins of Man, Fig.8,7, in "Art of the thieullienian paleolithic Civilization", , Fig. 8A8 and Fig. 8A9 , in "Art of the thieullienian post-paleolithic Civilization", and in this website see: "The ancient two-faced " Venus" of Mexico in relation to the two-faced paleolithic "Venus " of the Balzi Rossi ".

About the bicephalous venus of the Balzi Rossi I have expressed in mine previous papers my doubts with regard to its authenticity, for several reasons, but today setting up the analysis about the religion, and also about two-faced and bicephalous feminine statuine of the post-paleolithic periods, included the Mesopotamia, I have little doubts, and therefore, I am based on the hypothesis that the sculpture is true.
The affinities between bicephalous venus of the Balzi rossi and bicephalous venus of Campo Ceresole are only of religious type, in how much they have in common the two heads and the nude body.
The first is sculpted in the stone; the second is modeled in terracotta. The first is high millimetres 27,5; the second is high 140 milimetres, that is is high nearly 5 times.
Between the two sculptures there is not stylistic affinity, and regarding the evolution of the working technique, there is no connection.
The first is dated between 28,000 and 22,000 years ago; the second is dated between 7,000 and 6,000 years ago ( end of the V millennium B.C.).
It is necessary to hold account that the small sculptures have been in great part destroyed, from every type of event. The venus of Campo Ceresole has been found fragmented and without one leg.
The destruction, and consequent scarcity of findings of the small sculptures, must be always considered, in how much the rock graffiti are more numerous, because they have not been destroyed, but it is not said that the small sculptures were less numerous of the graffiti. In the Monte Bego (height 2,500 mt.), to the North of the Balzi Rossi, have been counted 100,000 graffiti on the rocks; and at North of Campo Ceresole, in Val Camonica, have been counted 130,000 graffiti on the rocks.
The graffiti on the rocks and the sculptures of venus have two different religious traditions, and two different artistic applications, and sure they belong to different people.
These little news are my opinions, and constitute small dowels of a SCIENCE OF THE ART, that I hope will have the possibility to be born.
Today, the Sciences of the Man that work are the linguistic, that has produced a genealogical tree of the ancient languages; the paleoanthropology, the paleoethnology (for the material culture), the ethnology, the history of the religions, but STILL DOES NOT EXIST A SCIENCE OF THE ART.

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